Category Archives: Fall

Why Leaves Change Color

fall maple

During the growing season, chlorophyll, essential for photosynthesis, is continually being produced and broken down and leaves appear green. As night length increases in the autumn, chlorophyll production slows down and then stops and eventually all the chlorophyll is destroyed. The carotenoids (responsible for orange, yellows and browns in things like bananas and clementines) and anthocyanins (responsible for reds and purples in items like cherries and berries) that are present in the leaf are then unmasked and show their colors.

Both chlorophyll and carotenoids are present in the chloroplasts of leaf cells throughout the growing season. Most anthocyanins are produced in the autumn, in response to bright light and excess plant sugars within leaf cells.

A succession of warm, sunny days and cool, crisp but not freezing nights seems to bring about the most spectacular color displays. During these days, lots of sugars are produced in the leaf but the cool nights and the gradual closing of veins going into the leaf prevent these sugars from moving out. These conditions-lots of sugar and lots of light-spur production of the brilliant anthocyanin pigments, which tint reds, purples, and crimson. Because carotenoids are always present in leaves, the yellow and gold colors remain fairly constant from year to year.

The amount of moisture in the soil also affects autumn colors. A late spring, or a severe summer drought, can delay the onset of fall color by a few weeks. A warm period during fall will also lower the intensity of autumn colors. A warm wet spring, favorable summer weather, and warm sunny fall days with cool nights should produce the most brilliant autumn colors.

Some of my favorite places to enjoy the onslaught of fall color?  Visit now and often over the next few weeks and watch the marvelous display.

Independence Grove (shown in photo above)

The Morton Arboretum 

 

Preparing for fall – next year

I find it interesting how many sites have so little fall interest.  It’s probably because we all kind of forget about our yards starting in September.  With the change of seasons comes the change in routine…getting kids back to school, weekends spent watching football, and shorter days mean we spend less time outside.

What I do at this time of year, every year, is spend a lot of thoughtful time watching my garden so that I can plan for next year.  I’ve spent all summer watching it evolve, grow and now wane.  I want to make sure it is just as beautiful now as it was at its height.

I rely on some old standbys for fall color of course, Viette’s Little Suzy (a new improved version of a black eyed Susan), grasses with their beautiful plumes, fall mums, and Burning Bush and Sumac for that fantastic red color.

But there are some other interesting picks that you might not expect that can give you interest and add to the fundamentals.

Anemone ‘September Charm’

Sedum kamtschaticum

 

Hydrangea ‘Tardiva’

 

 

Geranium ‘Karmina’

For more information about Anemone, or the Japanese Wind Flower, read this great article by the Chicago Botanic Garden.